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Tox21 Assays

The following table lists the Tox21 assays currently available. Review additional details about these assays.

AssayAssay End Point*Cell TypeAssay Readout
Cell viability       
Intracellular ATP,       
Hek293, Jurkat, HepG2, Sh-SY5Y, SK-N-SH, BJ, HUV-EC-C, MRC-5, mesangial, kidney       
proximal tubules, N2a, H-4-II-E, NIH3T3
Membrane integrityLDH release,       
protease release
HEK293, mesangialFluorescence,       
Mitochondrial toxicityMembrane potentialHepG2Fluorescence
DNA damageMicronucleusCHOFluorescence
CytokineIL-8, TNF-αTHP-1Homogenous       
time-resolved fluorescence
Nuclear receptorAR, ERα, FXR, PPARδ, PPARγ, RXR, TRβ, VDR, GR, hPXR, AhR, rPXR, CAR, ERRHek293, HeLa, HepG2β-Lactamase reporter,       
luciferase reporter
Toxicity pathwayAP-1, HIF-1α, SIE, NF-κB, HSR, ESRE, ARE/Nrf2, CREB, p53, real-time cytotoxicity and viabilityME-180,HeLa, HepG2, Hek293, CHO, HCT-116, HepG2β-Lactamase reporter,       
luciferase reporter
hERG channelThallium influxU-2OSFluorescence
G-protein-coupled receptor signalingTRHR, TSHRHek293Fluorescence, homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence
Enzyme activityAChESH-SY5YFluorescence
Developmental pathwayRetinol signaling, Hedgehog/Gli, SBE/SmadC3H10T1/2, 3T3, HEK 293TLuciferase reporter, fluorescence
*AChE, acetylcholinesterase; AhR, aryl hydrocarbon receptor; AP-1, activator protein-1; AR, androgen receptor; ARE/Nrf2, antioxidant response element/NF-E2 related factor 2; CAR, constitutive androstane receptor; CREB, cAMP response element binding; ERα, estrogen receptor α; ERR, estrogen-related receptor; ESRE, endoplasmic reticulum stress response element; FXR, farnesoid X receptor; GR, glucocorticoid receptor; HIF-1α, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α; hPXR, human pregnane X receptor; HSR, heat shock response element; IL-8, interleukin-8; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa B; PPARδ, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ; PPARγ, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ; rPXR, rat pregnane X receptor; RXR, retinoid X receptor; SBE/Smad, Smad binding element; SIE, sis-inducible element; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor α; TRβ, thyroid hormone receptor β; TRHR, thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor; TSHR, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor; VDR, vitamin D receptor.