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Toxicology in the 21st Century

Tox21 Assays

The following table lists the Tox21 assays currently available at NCATS.

Assay

Assay End Point*

Cell Type

Assay Readout

Cell viability
Apoptosis

Intracellular ATP,
Caspase-3/7

Hek293, Jurkat, HepG2, Sh-SY5Y, SK-N-SH, BJ, HUV-EC-C, MRC-5, mesangial, kidney
proximal tubules, N2a, H-4-II-E, NIH3T3

Luminescence

Membrane integrity

LDH release,
Protease release

HEK293, mesangial

Fluorescence,
Luminescence

Mitochondrial toxicity

Membrane potential

HepG2

Fluorescence

DNA damage

Micronucleus

CHO

Fluorescence

Cytokine

IL-8, TNF-α

THP-1

Homogenous
time-resolved fluorescence

Nuclear receptor

AR, ERα, FXR, PPARδ, PPARγ, RXR, TRβ, VDR, GR, hPXR, AhR, rPXR

Hek293, HeLa, HepG2

β-Lactamase reporter,
Luciferase reporter

Toxicity pathway

AP-1, HIF-1α, SIE, NF-κB, HSR, ESRE, ARE/Nrf2, CREB, p53

ME-180,HeLa, HepG2, Hek293, CHO, HCT-116, HepG2

β-Lactamase reporter,
Luciferase reporter

hERG channel

Thallium influx

U-2OS

Fluorescence

*AhR, aryl hydrocarbon receptor; AP-1, activator protein-1; AR, androgen receptor; ARE/Nrf2, antioxidant response element/NF-E2 related factor 2; CREB, cAMP response element binding; ERα, estrogen receptor α; ESRE, endoplasmic reticulum stress response element; FXR, farnesoid X receptor; GR, glucocorticoid receptor; HIF-1α, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α; hPXR, human pregnane X receptor; HSR, heat shock response element; IL-8, interleukin-8; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa B; PPARδ, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ; PPARγ, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ; rPXR, rat pregnane X receptor; RXR, retinoid X receptor; SIE, sis-inducible element; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor α; TRβ, thyroid hormone receptor β; VDR, vitamin D receptor.

Last updated: 07-25-2017
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